Effect of Technology Integration on Middle School Math Proficiency: A Multiple Linear Regression Study

Anita McClain, Teresa North
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Mandates to improve curriculum and instruction and incorporate technology in teaching U.S. K-12 students have failed to improve math proficiency as measured by standardized assessments. Still, 40–60% need remedial coursework in college. Past efforts have focused on incorporating specific technologies. The SAMR approach redirects the effort to focus on how technology is used, aligning with Bloom’s taxonomy. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to quantify the contribution of Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition to MAP Growth in math for 644 students taught by eight teachers across 36 class sections at a single Indiana middle school. A wide range in teacher use of technology corresponded to significant (p < .05) differences in MAP Growth. Hierarchical multiple linear regression revealed that incorporation of SAMR elements above Substitution explained a small, 2.0%, yet significant (p = .001) part of variation in MAP Growth. At least Most Weeks use of Augmentation added 1.06 points (p = .008), Modification an additional 2.12 points (p = .002), and Redefinition an additional 1.19 points (p = .003) for a combined significant net 4.37-point increase. With all teachers from the same school and only some using technology at high learning levels, the findings led to a recommendation for investment in professional development training rather than focusing on adding specific technology tools.


SAMR model, Technology integration, Math competency, Middle school

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McClain, A. & North, T. (2021). Effect of technology integration on middle school math proficiency: A multiple linear regression study. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IJEMST), 9(4), 557-570. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijemst.1456

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46328/ijemst.1456


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International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology (IJEMST) 
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editors: Ismail Sahin & Mack Shelley

Place of Publication: Turkey & Name of Publisher: Ismail Sahin

ISSN: 2147-611X (Online)

International Society for Technology, Education and Science (ISTES)