A Scoping Review on STEM Education: The Best Practices Recorded Through Previous Studies in Early Childhood Education Setting

Azam Ghazali, Zakiah Mohamad Ashari, Joanne Hardman
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STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education is a 21st century learning approach that is extremely important to students and children nowadays. Many developed countries have emphasized this approach to early childhood education (ECE). Although there are some challenges in promoting children's cognitive development in preschool, there are some best practices that early childhood educators can use as a guideline in planning, implementing, and evaluating their development at school. Four databases were used to find the best practices consist of Scopus, ERIC, Web of Science, and Science Direct. These databases are consulted to analyze published articles that produce findings on the best practices and challenges of implementing STEM activities that have been recorded either in kindergarten or preschool environments. The findings revealed there were 23 themes for the best practices and 10 themes for challenges that were successfully analyzed. In order to ensure that STEM education can be implemented with better quality in the future, educators should know the best way to implement the activities by practicing the best practices. In addition, educators also need to take action wisely when there are challenges in implementing STEM activities so that children can acquire meaningful experience when participating in the activities.


STEM education, 21st century learning, Best practice, Early years

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Ghazali, A., Ashari, Z.M., & Hardman, J. (2024). A scoping review on STEM education: The best practices recorded through previous studies in early childhood education setting. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IJEMST), 12(3), 810-835. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijemst.3880

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46328/ijemst.3880


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International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology (IJEMST) 
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Editors: Mack Shelley & Ismail Sahin

Place of Publication: Turkey & Name of Publisher: Ismail Sahin

ISSN: 2147-611X (Online)